Paul Gibson’s Hull and East Yorkshire History

The Old House in Dagger Lane

I have always been fascinated by a photographic picture postcard in my collection, and intrigued by the apparent lack of information regarding the history of its subject. The c.1905 image showed an ‘Old House’ in Dagger Lane now long demolished.  My first impressions were that what appears to be a shop window was a later addition, and that it may have been a refreshment house or even a gardener’s house related to tea gardens, which may have stood in the area. It appeared too small to have been a dwelling house when it was built unless it formed part of a larger group of buildings. Could it even have been a converted gateway or gate-house or even a lodge of some sort? The little building puzzled me and spurred me on to further research.

Architecturally

The building was shown in later images as a rendered or stuccoed structure. Beneath the stucco (added in the 1880s) it was clearly built of quite ornate brickwork. This use of decorative brickwork developed during the 17th Century and became known as Artisan Mannerism. The style was heavily influenced by Dutch craftsmen and incorporated Classical details in brick such as pilasters, cornices with diamond motifs and other decoration. Both the north and west (Dagger Lane) elevations featured ornate gables, the frontage capped by a double-tiered Dutch gable over an unusually decorative façade for a building seemingly so insignificant. Decorative panels in brick covered much of the frontage; a frontage that was described by the Victoria County History as ‘much altered’.  Its original front, and one can only speculate how it may have looked, had at some point been replaced by a later shop front, which appeared out of place within the context of the Artisan Mannerist detail. Had it originally been an arched gateway to a garden or courtyard? The rather redundant pediment over the awkward shop-front suggested to me that the whole of the property had been the shell of a gateway of sorts. It seems very likely that the Old House was possibly the entrance to, and part of, a much larger building or group of buildings.

Other examples of Artisan Mannerism from the same period are Wilberforce House in High Street  (c.1660), Crowle House, also in High Street (c.1664) and the White Harte Inn, entered from Silver Street (c.1665). Other buildings, now sadly demolished, of the same style or featuring elements of the style were the former Coach & Horses Inn, Mytongate, No.85 Queen Street and Crowle’s Hospital in Sewer Lane (c.1661). It should be said however, that although the Old House contained decorative brickwork, its similarity ends there and it could be seen as quite different to its alleged contemporaries. Was it just a folly built by a later owner – possibly a bricklayer or builder attempting to advertise his expertise? This seems unlikely, as a builder would no doubt have built himself a more imposing residence, but it is also possible that the details were reclaimed from another nearby building following its demolition. Builders of the past were by necessity far more adept at recycling materials than their modern counterparts. Tantalisingly, there were at least two brickmakers known to have resided in Dagger Lane at the beginning of the 19th Century.

Historically

In 1347 only one ‘tenement and plot’ was recorded in the town rentals in Champagne Street, the name of Dagger Lane at that time. This land had belonged to Robert de Percy c.1293 and had been described as an ‘old tenement and garden’ (Horrox). Hollar’s plan of Hull made c.1640 showed no property built upon the western side of Dagger Lane (by then known as Hutchinson’s Lane – probably a corrupted version of a former landowner John Hucheson c.1525) between Robinson Row and Mytongate.

This concurs with the Victoria County History’s estimate of the building’s age of c.1660-1670;’contemporary with but now demolished’. Hollar’s plan did show a wall around the area, which was almost certainly a garden at that time (see later). As it was a garden at the time, and if there had been access from Hutchinson’s Lane, there would presumably have been a gate; would Hollar have shown such a small building as a gate-house or lodge, especially if it was ruined, or had he missed it completely?

Rosemary Horrox did great work in the 1970s on the early town rentals and attempted to divide the town up as it was according to the measurements contained in old documents. To decide which of Rosemary Horrox' plots the Old House was situated in is difficult. However, based on Rosemary's work it can only be plot No.142 or No.158, both of which were on land that had originally belonged to the Duke of Suffolk. Plot No.142 stretched east to west from Beverley Street (the line of Fish Street) to Champagne Street (now Dagger Lane) and had a frontage to Mytongate of 197 feet. This accounts neatly for all the land between these two streets at the south side of the block. This was the land mentioned in the VCH reference of 1347, which included the only 'rented' property (‘tenement’) in Dagger Lane at that time.

These dates would appear too early for the construction of the Old House based purely on the style of brickwork alone; unless it was altered later, as suggested earlier. Plot No.158 contained the land to the north of plot No.142, along the south side of Robinson Row (originally ‘Jesus Gate’ and probably re-named after the family of saddler William Robinson c.1556 or a 17th Century sheriff of Hull, William Robinson). According to the map within the Horrox work this could have included the Old House on its south-west boundary. The references are dense, difficult to place on the ground and deal mainly with the eastern side of the plot; details for the western side are few and vague. Again, the latest reference regarding this plot is c.1611, which would still seem too early for the Old House. However…

The western side of the plot seems to have been taken up largely by a single tenement on lands originally belonging to the Duke of Suffolk. The only firm evidence that can be gleaned from the Horrox work is that a property described as ‘a garden in Jesus Gate’ (Robinson Row) was leased to George Pease in 1611. The western extent of the garden was its boundary with the ‘garden occupied by Widow Cooke’. Widow Cooke was probably the wife of Thomas Cooke, who had leased the land including a tenement in 1556, and who was recorded until at least 1597. The land on which the Old House was built is likely to have been within the gardens of Widow Cooke, latterly including stables rented by a ‘horse-breaker’ - but when was the property built? As the references in the Horrox work end c.1611 for this area and no property appears to have been shown on Hollar’s plan of 1640 it is unlikely that the tenement mentioned in 1556 has any relation to the Old House. Or had it – had Hollar missed or ignored the small property? Was it just a ruined stable house or gateway by that time, which he thought irrelevant? 

Two of the four manor houses of the De La Pole family have never been fully accounted for but two where known to have ‘stood within the town’ of Hull (Sheahan pp70). It is feasible that one of the two unknown sites was on plot No.142. If this was so, the Old House may well have formerly been a gate-house to one of the lost manor-houses of the Duke of Suffolk. Following an Act of 1540 for the ‘re-edification of towns’ there were concerted efforts by the corporation to prevent property from falling into decay and during the 17th Century many townsmen spent lavishly on decorating their property. Many added additional storeys, extra rooms, projecting bays and new porches (VCH). The Old House may have been the result of this spurt of rebuilding and what was once an old, possibly disused, gate-house may have been rejuvenated during this period. The Pole’s manor house in Lowgate was gradually demolished after 1663 and materials may have been reused on another of the sites that had previously belonged to the family (VCH).

A possible later reference from the Hull University Archive, is found within the terms of a marriage settlement from 1774, part of which included ‘9 messuages in Dagger Lane’ and another ‘2 messuages in Dagger Lane & 4 messuages in Robinson Row or Jesus Gate’. The nine messuages could be seen as relating directly to the nine southernmost properties on the east side of Dagger Lane shown on plans of the 19th Century; the others would account for those properties at the corner of Dagger Lane and Robinson Row. The latter would have included the Old House. If this was correct the owner at that time would have been Elizabeth Thompson, a spinster. The properties formed part of her estate upon her marriage to Francis Twistleton (‘Captain and Lieutenant in the 3rd Foot Guards’). But which version is correct?

Much later…

An article from the Hull Times newspaper of 29 August 1931 shows how close we came to having the building preserved. Be prepared, the article makes for very, very sad reading:-

‘Hull’s proud past - Scheme to reconstruct a street of olden days - Old property given.

An old Hull street reconstructed just as Charles the First might have seen it – bow windowed shops, a sloping cobbled roadway with its central gutter, a host of old inns and trade signs, and all the trappings and equipment of ancient life – this is the vision which Mr T Sheppard, M.Sc., Director of Museums, has conceived and hopes to bring to fulfillment. The two oldest houses in the city have already been presented to the Corporation for this purpose. The site chosen for this street is High Street not far from Wilberforce House and it will run through to the waterfront, so that one end will open upon the oldest and most picturesque portion of the town, and the other will open upon that portion of the river which once bore the richest argosies of the merchant princes. The modern demolition of property for the betterment of the city is rapidly sweeping away the visible traces of the ancient town of Hull, which has watched the passing of so many centuries of changing civilisation. It may be recalled that the ‘Times’ recently pleaded for the preservation of some portion of old Hull intact. The present scheme will more than fulfil that hope.

Complete By 1933

The year 1933 will mark the centenary of the death of Wilberforce, and it is hoped to complete the building of this old street before the celebration of that event. The site is already in the posession of the corporation, under the control of the Museums Committee, and from a meeting held this week Mr Sheppard has reason to believe that the committee will favourably consider a suggestion he made to them a year ago – that an eyesore which is also a source of danger should be removed and the ground used for the purpose outlined. There will be room for fifteen or twenty ‘shops’. For many years the Director has been collecting material for a series of shops and has secured old bow-windows, doorways and signs, all of which are in store. It is possible at once to furnish completely with old appurtenances of their trades, a tobacconist’s shop, a tavern, a printing shop, a glass-maker’s, an undertaker’s, a blacksmithy, a cooper’s, a carriage builder’s, an organ builder’s workshop, a wood turner’s and carpenter’s, a gunsmith’s, a plumber’s and an apothecary’s.

Two Interesting Houses

Amongst the signs already in the possession of the Director are a huge teapot and an enormous blunderbuss. The two houses given to the Corporation are amongst the most interesting in the Old Town. One is a quaint structure in Dagger Lane, and has a very elaborate stone façade. It has been presented by the owners, Messrs A L and F W Harrison, plumber’s. The other gift comprises the Wilberforce Arms, formerly the Yarmouth Arms and the adjoining building near George Yard Entry High Street opposite the Wilberforce House. This wonderful old structure has been given by Thomas Smith and Co., sack merchants. Other valuable relics which may be incorporated are Georgian house fronts from the site of the Majestic Cinema, presented by Mr James Downs and Mr Charles Downs, and another Georgian house front given by Messrs A J Darnley and Son.

Original Trade Signs

Among the original Hull trade and inn signs in the possession of the Museum are the Cross Keys, the Turk’s Head, the Durham Ox, the Lord Collingwood, the Garibaldi, the Royal Arms, the Grapes, the Crown and Cushion, the Bricklayer’s Arms (a hod), the Burns Head (a glass panel from the door of the Tiger), a chemist’s pestle and mortar, the teapot and the blunderbuss mentioned above, the sign of a druggist named Hall, a board with the Carriage Builders arms, a warning against drunkenness, a board bearing old factory regulations and the sign of the [old] Bowling Green.’ (sic)


The Director of Museums Tom Sheppard remarked on the gift of the Old House in one of his reports to the Hull Municipal Corporation, Property & Bridges Committee in September 1931: -

‘Following the suggestion that the Wilberforce Warehouse should be dis-mantled, I have had presented to us the set of buildings opposite the Wilberforce Museum by Messrs. Smith & Co., and the fine old Elizabethan gate-house in Dagger Lane, presented by Messrs. Harrison. I have also secured a fine old half-timbered building. These with the objects we have in store [at various council warehouses] will enable us to re-construct a Hull street of two centuries, or so, ago.’ (sic)

The mock-up of an Old Hull Street was partially constructed, in warehouses near to Wilberforce House, but was sadly never opened to the public.

It was shown to various groups of visitors however and some photographs exist. Sadly, the unfinished street was damaged in the Blitz of 1941 and subsequently demolished; Sheppard retired the same year and died in 1945. A later article in the Hull Times of 24 June 1939 entitled ‘Dates back to 1570’, was illustrated by another excellent photograph of the building in full elevation and appeared to show workmen about their business at the property. The article continued: -

‘… the men who constructed the building shown above built better than they knew for it still stands in Dagger Lane, Hull despite the fact that it dates back to 1570. It was originally the porter’s lodge to an Elizabethan building behind it.’

Sadly no source was given for the rather specific information, but it may well have been taken from one of the historians of the time, as many had their works serialised in the newspapers. It is interesting that Sheppard remarked on the Old House being an Elizabethan gate-house; where did he get his information – or was it just his speculation?  Is it merely coincidence that the later newspaper caption also mentioned it being a porters lodge of an Elizabethan building… of c.1570? I think not. Somewhere, possibly lost within the museums stores, the Hull City Archives, or - heaven forbid - destroyed during the blitz of World War Two, is the documentation to prove the story. As any local historian knows, to find it could take a lifetime.

The Georgian Society for East Yorkshire later referred to the house as both ‘Jacobean’ and its brickwork as ‘early 17th Century’. These references and Sheppard’s estimate (or quote) gave the building a possible range of dates from say 1570 to 1630, which clearly conflicts with more modern estimates based on the style of brickwork alone, of c.1660. Trying to bridge the gap between the town rentals and later references is extremely difficult. It is only possible to fill the huge gap with secondary source material, available in the form of trade directory references, and some tax and other land assessments made during the 18th Century.

The trade directories are only of any real use from c.1814, when they began to list house numbers. Sadly the Old House appears not to have had a confirmed entry in the trade directories until c.1838. Prior to this it may have been derelict, and was at some point taken over and at that time had a bow-window added. Although the window appears Georgian, some references suggest it was a Victorian addition.

Greenwood’s Picture of Hull, written in 1835, contains an image that appears to show the Old House at that date, and shows it in an earlier form; any number of assumptions ca be made from the wood-cut image, produced by Greenwood himself. It is a contemporary view, and not one intended as an impression of an earlier scene, and the building is shown very much within a boundary wall of some kind, and as having had only one narrow entry to Dagger Lane. This does tend to concur with the theories suggested earlier and clearly, there was no shop-front at that date. A sketch on page 95 of Brown’s Guide to Hull, compiled by Edmund Wrigglesworth in 1890, was accompanied by contemporary text, which stated: -  

‘…in this street [Dagger Lane] is a beautiful specimen of ancient ornamental brickwork, which has suffered in recent years from the tasteless hands of modern repairers, who have disfigured it with a coat of stucco, which now hides the charms of this ancient structure. We append a view of this old house as it appeared before its recent defacement.’ The sketch shows a name board over the window and entrance to the shop, which concurs with trade directory entries for no.10 Dagger Lane - Rebecca Glen’. Some other contemporary directory references are as follows: -

1838 – Anthony Bateson, shopkeeper 10 Dagger Lane

1851 – Mathew Dawson, grocer & tea dealer 10 Dagger Lane

1863-64 – Ann Taylor, grocer & tea dealer 10 Dagger Lane

1867-79 – Rebecca Glen, shopkeeper 10 Dagger Lane

The 1881 Census, compiled ten years earlier, revealed that on the evening of the Census Rebecca Glen was a lodger at the Plumber’s Arms, at no.9 Dagger Lane, at the corner of Robinson Row. She was aged 62 years and listed as a grocer. The property next to the Plumbers’ in the census, was a ‘grocer’s shop-lock up’, which was uninhabited. No.10 had three residents but was also listed as an unoccupied shop to let. It is difficult to assess the property from the numbering in the census suffice to say it was almost certainly that which had three residents, an uninhabited shop at that time.

Clayton’s 1805 directory for Hull had listed the Glen family in Dagger Lane when Rebecca must only have been around 14 years old. ‘George Glen, dealer in porter’ and ‘Mary Glen & Son, tallow-chandlers’ were presumably the parents of young Rebecca. It seems the Glen family had been important in Dagger Lane – were the Glen businesses all located in buildings built upon the former gardens of Widow Cooke, land later owned by Elizabeth Thompson circa 1774? Goad’s Fire Insurance plans of c.1886 confirm the premises were a shop and dwelling at no.10 Dagger Lane. From the plans we can see that the Old House was roofed in tile (indicated by a T). Also that its southern wall was a party wall of two storeys or more (indicated by a bold line), that it had a half storey above the ground floor (1) and that it was fully enclosed. The room behind the shop was less than fifty square feet and had a skylight (indicated by ^). The single storey room behind the Old House may have been connected but was more likely a store-room related to the pub on the corner. 

Hull pavement artist F S Smith’s drawings of the property and Dagger Lane, of c.1888 and 1885 respectively, also confirm that the property was No.10 Dagger Lane at that time. Smith’s drawing also clearly shows the other ‘lock-up’ shop at no.9, in between the pub and the Old House (see Images of Victorian Hull, pp.38-39). Some likely tenants around that time, from trade directories, were: -

1888 – Samuel Roubert, boot & shoemaker

1892 – William Thomas Stewart, bird dealer

1905 – Ellen Bickerscaff, shopkeeper

1915 – William Henry Jackson, shopkeeper

1929 – Sarah Moore, shopkeeper 10 Dagger Lane

A photograph by Harry Cartlidge of c.1937 showed the house in good repair at that time, but nothing was listed in the trade directories of 1939. The VCH states that the property was ‘demolished 1943’, and this is re-iterated by historian Arthur Credland in his book on Cartlidge, that the house was damaged in the blitz and subsequently demolished. R.A.F. aerial mosaic photographs, made during 1946 to show the extent of wartime damage, show the vast majority of Dagger Lane properties still intact after the Blitz on Hull during World War Two. The site of the Old House is hard to distinguish on such a small-scale photograph (ref 0928 SE) but it appears that the property had definitely gone by that date.

Why was it demolished? It had been presented to the corporation in 1931, so why was it still standing in 1939 when it should have been packed away in the museums stores? Had the council had a re-think or did hostilities with Germany catch them on the hop? Was it lack of funding or just a proverbial cock-up? It seems unlikely that Sheppard would have just abandoned his treasured building, so had it become unsafe, and if so why was the frontage still not saved by the museum? There appears to have been no other reference to the ‘gifts’ after Sheppard’s initial reports in 1931, so why was the project shelved – the other buildings given to Sheppard (opposite Wilberforce House) were also taken down post 1941. Allegedly some small part of their High Street frontage does still exist in the museums stores - so was it decided that it was impossible, or impracticable due to the continued bombings, to save all of the properties?

A photograph, taken by the City Engineers Dept. dated 15 March 1941, appears to show the house in Dagger Lane with some sort of barrier around it (TSP/4/3-388). This may indicate any number of things, but close inspection of the picture is impossible, as the negatives for that particular roll of film have been lost, and it is only viewable as a tiny contact print. There is however a ‘War Damage Report’ for the property, which states that the building was damaged by a high explosive incendiary bomb that fell nearby, during bombing on the 7 and 9 May 1941. The report also states that demolition was necessary as a result of the damage but gave no date for, or confirmation of, the demolition.

The archives in Hull hold many records relating to Dagger Lane but curiously none for the Old House other than the War Damage Report, which relates to a number of properties. The documents could have been passed to the Museums when the property was given as a gift in 1931, and may remain in the Wilberforce Museum archives as speculated earlier. Some other records for the Old House have been ‘de-accessioned’, i.e. returned to the original owner, in the intervening years or simply destroyed. The Georgian Society for East Yorkshire commented about the state of play regarding threatened buildings in Hull during the latter years of World War Two: -

‘In the summer of 1943 it became clear that many of the older buildings of historic or architectural interest in the Old Town were menaced, either by immediate demolition by their owners, or eventual removal under one or other of the town planning schemes then being formulated. Three buildings of considerable interest actually were pulled down, without any apparent regard for their character, namely –

1.     The Old George Inn, in High Street, a 15th Century half-timbered structure and probably the oldest secular building left in the City. This building had been in Elizabethan times as a Cloth Hall. It had recently fallen into some decay, but was not beyond restoration.

2.     The old Water-Gate in Little Humber Street, with its adjoining Guard House. This Gateway leading into Little Lane was the original entrance to the town from the River Humber. The Gateway itself was a sound structure of 16th Century brick. The house over the Gateway and adjoining it was of a later date, and had been used in the late 17th Century as a Guard House. Some account of this building was given in the transactions for 1938-39. It had been understood that the house would not be removed.

3.     The ‘Jacobean’ House in Dagger Lane – a charming little gabled house of early 17th Century brickwork.

In view of the part played by Hull in the inception of English brickwork, the disappearance of these three buildings is to be deplored… owing to the continuing danger of interference with buildings of historic interest, the Hon. Secretary of the East Riding Antiquarian Society joined with the writer in December 1943 in calling the attention of the Chief Inspector of Ancient Monuments to the unsatisfactory position at Hull'.

Unsatisfactory indeed, it is clear that from this contemporary account the building had indeed been demolished without thought in 1943.

Sadly, in the years that followed the war, and the mass redevelopment schemes of the 1960s and 1970s, hundreds more architecturally unique buildings were demolished in a continued 'Blitz' on Hull. Whilst I can grudgingly understand the haste to sweep clear any reminder of the war, and clear away unsafe structures during War conditions, there can be no excuse for peace-time loss of Hull's heritage; a situation that has not really improved since - Hull's architectural heritage is still being lost. The photograph shown to the right (courtesy of Infoterra Ltd/ Bluesky/ Europa Technologies) shows the present scene from the air. All of the old Horrox' plot has been lost and the inner area is now as vacant and empty as when Hollar made his plan in 1640.

The following notes were made during my research, and are included here as they may be of interest to family historians.

Dagger Lane residents from the 1791 trade directory: -

Thomas Ashlin victualler; Sampson Alexander sealing wax & penmaker; Banks & Kirman mustard manufacturers; Samuel Barnard reverend; Thomas Cross baker; William Foster tallow chandler; Joseph Martin gent.; William Moxon merchant; Richard Orton butcher; Robert Ruston master mariner; Green Smart patten maker; Edward Stephenson corn factor (+1784); John Sugdon master mariner; Thomas Ward common brewer; Thomas Warton victualler

Dagger Lane in a 1798 land tax assessment (BRS 44): - Austin Ward i.e. south of Robinson Row, in street order probably north to south east side then north to south west side. The rent gives an idea of the relationship to the size of the properties.

TenantRent LandlordDescription
Mr Ashlin9sCol. Thompsonhouse
Mrs Glen14Mr Moxonhouse
Mr Hunt8Mr Moxonwarehouse & tenements
2 tenants8Mr Moxonhouse
Mrs Jameson15Mr Hornerhouse
Mr Burnett8Mr Belgravehouse
2 tenants5Mr Cockshutthouse
2 tenants5Mr Cockshutthouse
3 tenants5Mr Cockshutthouse
3 tenants5? Jacksonhouse
Mrs Motherby5Mr Cockshutthouse
Mr Banks12Mr Granthamhouse
Mr Grantham6Mr Granthamhouse
Mrs Neville6 Mr Granthamhouse
6 tenants16Mr GranthamFt. house (?)
Mrs Brown12Col. Thompsonhouse
3 tenants12Mrs Brownhouse
here is Schonswars Square
Mr Gardham10Col. Thompsonhouse
Sir Henry20Sir Henryhouse
5 tenants14Mr Trevorhouse
Mr Fletcher12Mr Trevorhouse
here is Mytongate

1805 trade directory: -

Maria Ames pipe maker; Thomas Ashton victualler Crown; Ann Bailey; John Hardy Bateman merchant (& alderman); Thomas Brown victualler Whale; Mary Fletcher pawnbroker; Robert Gardham tailor; Mary Glen & Son tallow chandlers; George Glen dealer in porter; Samuel Gould baker; Mrs Ann Jameson; Thomas Johnson tailor & habitmaker; Cornelious Kay victualler Society Tavern; Samuel Kirkman mustard merchant; William Richardson brickmaker; John Ward brewer.

1814 trade directory: -

1  John Harper master mariner; 3  William Richardson brickmaker; 6  John Crestie (sic) victualler Societies Tavern; 9  John Thompson victualler; 11 Ann Horsley tallow chandler; 13 James Hardy baker; 13 Thomas Stathers shoemaker; 19 Joseph Cook victualler; 23 Thomas Barker bricklayer; 24 John Ward brewer; 25 Joseph Scott pipemaker; 28 Christopher Ablard baker; 30 William Cucklow bill distributor

Among documents still to consult regarding the possible build date and original use of the structure are: -

Land Tax Returns (BRS44). Hull City Archives (1798 searched 23.10.01)

Town Assesments (CAT). ditto.

Vicar’s Returns. ditto.

Deeds Registry. East Riding Archives, Beverley (briefly viewed 29.10.01).

© P L Gibson Hull, November 2001

Reviewed March 2002, October 2006 and June 2009.

Brief Bibliography

Victoria County History of the County of York, East Riding, Volume 1 The City of Kingston upon Hull. Edited by K J Allison. Oxford University Press for Institute of Historical Research 1969.

Brown’s Illustrated Guide to Hull. E Wrigglesworth, Hull 1891. Mr Pye Books, Howden 1992.

Images of Victorian Hull: FS Smith’s Drawings of the Old Town. C Aldridge, Hull City Council Musums & Art Galleries and The Hutton Press, 1989.

Landlord (work in progress). Graham Wilkinson, Hull 2001.

Tom Sheppard Hull’s Great Collector. Tim Schadla-Hall. Highgate Publications (Beverley) Ltd. 1989.

Hull University Manuscripts & Archives Database. Via Internet.

The Changing Plan of Hull 1290-1650: A guide to documentary sources for the early topography of Hull. Rosemary Horrox. Kingston upon Hull City Council 1978.

City & County of Kingston upon Hull. Calendar of the Ancient Deeds, Letters, Miscellaneous Old Documents, etc. in the Archives of the Corporation. Indexed by L M Stanwell, Guildhall Hull 1951.

Harry Cartlidge 1893-1987, Hull Photographer. Arthur G Credland, Hull City Museums & Hutton Press Ltd. Hull 1998.

Streets of Hull, A History of Their Names. John Markham. Highgate Publications Beverley 1987.

Acknowledgments

Rob Barnard for his extensive knowledge of the early documents relating to the town of Hull.

Nigel Wilkins of the National Monuments Record for searches of their collections.

Google Earth

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